Will The Real Jeep Please Stand Up
(By Jim Allen as appeared in Fourwheeler on March 1995)
Although Jeep vehicles are now a Chrysler trademark, the word "Jeep" has slipped into our everyday vocabulary. When spoken, it creates an image that everyone understands. Much has been written on the origins of the vehicle we now know as the Jeep. How it actually came to earn the name "Jeep," and the other vehicles that for a time carried the same name, is a fascinating tale. Legal controversy over the rights to Jeep raged through the 1940s ... and the fallout continues even today. But in the end, overwhelming public opinion was probably the deciding factor, and the truck - a 1/4ton General Purpose 4x4became forever the Jeep. But it wasn't always so.
The first coinage of the word "Jeep," as applied to a motor vehicle, occurred during WWI. According to Major E.P. Hogan, who wrote a history of the development of the Jeep for the Army's Ouartermaster Review in 1941, the word predated the controversy. "Jeep," he wrote, "is an old Army greasemonkey term that dates back to the last war (World War 1) and was used by shop mechanics in referring to any new motor vehicle received for a test." The word also found use in those days as a lessthancomplimentary term for new recruits. Jeep was still used in Army motor pools well into the 1930s when the next incarnation appeared and became the inspiration for many more Jeeps. On March 16, 1936, a comic strip character appeared that became an instant popular sensation. On that day, Eugene the Jeep was introduced to the already beloved Popeye comic strip by E.C. Segar. For those of us too young to have known Eugene well, he was described as being about the size of a dog, though he walked on his hind legs, and was a native of Africa. He subsisted on orchids and was said to be able to cross into the fourth dimension. He solved all sorts of complex problems for Popeye and Olive Oil, and always told the truth. The general public became so enamoured of Eugene the Jeep that his name quickly entered the slang vocabulary of the day. An average comment on an extremely capable person or thing might be, "Hey, he's a real Jeep!"
The original "Jeep"
Next comes the Jeep that was never called a "Jeep" but was later regarded as the "Granddaddy" of all Jeeps. Since 1932, the MarmonHerrington Company had built a reputation for its 4x4 conversions of 1 1/2ton (and larger) trucks. In July 1936, because of an obvious military need and a request from the Belgian Government, MH focused on crossing the yetuntried waters of the light 4x4 truck market. They converted a V8powered 1/2ton Ford truck by installing a driving front axle and transfer case. With this conversion, the era of the lightduty 4x4 truck began. The prototype has been widely referred to as the "Darling" but the MH employees who were there remember no such nickname. It isn't clear exactly why the MarmonHerrington truck was never nicknamed "Jeep." (Eugene had been around for a few months, but perhaps the MH engineers never read the comics.)
Later in 1936, Eugene's popularity was highlighted when the Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company used the name "Jeep" for a custombuilt exploration/survey vehicle. Built by the FWD Corporation to Halliburton specs, the truck was a converted 1935 or '36 model. Like all FWDs, it was an allterrain rig but differed from the standard cargo truck by having a vantype body. The truck had "Jeep" painted on both sides and was once used in advertising. King Features Syndicate, which owned the copyrights to Popeye and Eugene, probably took exception Halliburton soon discontinued official use of the name.They did, however, exhibit a vehicle at the International Petroleum Exhibition in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in 1938, that had an animal caricature painted on the side that looked suspiciously like Eugene. It was in fact a coati, a raccoonlike South American jungle creature. It may have been Halliburton's way of good naturedly thumbing its nose at King Features.
This brings us to 1937 and another Jeep. According to test pilot Col. G.F. Johnson, U.S. Army Air Corps, the prototype YB17 bomber was nicknamed "Jeep" because of its sterling performance. The YB 17 was the predecessor to the heralded Boeing B17 "Flying Fortress" bomber of World War II. This name eventually fell into disfavour because Eugene the Jeep was a little critter and the YB 17 was big by comparison. Gen. H.F. Gregory, the Army Air Corps' first helicopter pilot, said the Jeep name was used for another, smaller, aircraft, with the official of Popeye's publisher. Had this experimental autogyro, a predecessor to the helicopter, gone into production, it would have officially worn the name "Jeep". While testing these amazing Kellett autogyros at WrightPatterson Airfield in Ohio in the late 1930s, Gregory and his fellow test pilots were called "The Jeep Salesmen."
The YB-17 "Jeep"
The next version of the Jeep takes us to Camp Ripley, Minnesota, home of the 109th Ordnance Company, Minnesota National Guard. Captain Martin Schiska commanded the 109th, as well as being an employee of the MinneapolisMoline Power Implement Company, builder of farm tractors. In the mid1930s, the Army was still using ancient, hulking 1917 Holt 5ton tractors to pull its larger field pieces. Schiska, a World War I veteran, realized the need for new equipment and impressed this upon MinneapolisMoline. As early as 1938 (some sources say 1937) MM was building and testing prototype prime movers, and in August of 1940, during testing at Camp Ripley, Sergeant James T. O'Brien is quoted by several sources to have applied the name "Jeep" to the MM prime mover. In a letter to MinneapolisMoline dated March 31, 1943, O'Brien explained how the name came about. "One evening," he wrote, "in a gathering of enlisted men, it was suggested that a short descriptive name be found for these vehicles, such names as 'alligator' and 'swamp rabbit.' I brought forth the name 'Jeep' as a result of reading Popeye in which Eugene the Jeep appears as a character, and the fact that these vehicles would go where you would least expect them to go. The name was unanimously accepted and subsequently painted on the vehicles, which have since become familiarly known." The MM Model UTX was a real piece of hardware. Basically a converted farm tractor, the MM Jeep featured fourwheel drive and a 425cid, 70hp (at 1,275 rpm) sixcylinder gasoline engine. It could pull a 5ton 155mm howitzer at 28 mph, with occasional spurts up to 40 mph, and had a fording depth of over three feet. The MM Jeep prototypes came in open and closedcab models. Two of the four tested at Camp Ripley mounted .30cal machine guns. All models featured a roller device in place of a front bumper, enabling it to cross large obstacles. Some also mounted winches. During testing at the Fourth Army maneuvers in August 1940, the MM Jeep was photographed climbing six feet up an oak tree. (The tree gave up at that point, and the tractor crushed it into matchsticks. So much for Treading Lightly!) The tractor was also said to have "walked" through a forest of 5inch trees. These photos appeared in the Army Times (Sept. 14, 1940) in an article entitled "Army Likes Jeep." The MM Jeep performed well in a succession of tests, but the Army's requirements seemed to change by the day. Before the UTX ever went into production, the evolution towards larger and larger field pieces and the requirement for a relatively high road speed ultimately overwhelmed the UTX's capacities. A total of six were built, and one survivesin a private collection.
The MM UTX "Jeep"
Even though the UTX never saw service, once the proper niche was found, more than a thousand upgraded units were eventually produced in several versions that included a 6x6. MM designs saw service with all branches of the military during World War II and after. Ironically, the Molines found their ultimate niche as aircraft tractors, but even as late as 1943 newspaper headlines still referred to them as Jeeps. "Jeep Helps Save Lives of War Heroes" was the headline of one '43 news story, describing a photo of a MinneapolisMoline NTX tractor and a tale of strafed, burning aircraft being towed off a runway so a group of outof fuel fighters could land.
In 1940, several more "Jeeps"emerged. In the fall of 1939 and spring of 1940, Army units were issued a series of new vehicles that became popular with the troops. The T202 and T207 Dodge 1/2ton 4x4 trucks came in several configurations. The Command Car version, officially designated C&R (Command and Reconnaissance), was the opentopped fourby that was most often called a Jeep. The same basic chassis also came in Pickup, Weapons Carrier, and Carryall body styles. These trucks proved to be very good performers, and it wasn't long before GIs all over began to refer to the common Dodges as "Jeeps" for the same reasons as the MM. This name stuck through the evolution of the 1/2ton Dodge until it was replaced by the more commonly known 3/4tons in mid '42. As late as 1943, some troops were still calling the Dodges "Jeeps." The later Dodges began to be known more or less officially as "Beeps," short for "Big Jeeps."
The Dodge "Jeep"
On 1940, about the same time the Dodges were earning their sterling reputation, the American Bantam Car Company introduced a prototype 4x4 vehicle for testing by the Army at Camp Holabird, Maryland. As early as 1932, the Army had been looking to replace the motorcycle in reconnaissance work. American Austin, which later became American Bantam, supplied the Army with a small pickup version of its 4x2 Austin car for testing as a recon vehicle. It weighed less than half a ton, had oversize balloon tires, and got 40 mpg. It was based on vehicles supplied by the British arm of Austin to that country's military. In 1938, Bantam supplied the Army three more modified versions of its tiny 4x2 Austin roadsters for testing. The Army was generally favourable, but the tests brought out the shortcomings of twowheel drive vehicles in crosscountry use. The new 4x4 specification came out of these tests. Bantam worked closely with the Army to flesh out a design concept for a new vehicle.
To Bantam's surprise, open bids were taken for the new design. The Ordnance Technical Committee sent out specifications to 135 auto manufacturers on July 11, 1940, requiring 70 prototype vehicles to be delivered within 75 days in order to qualify for competition. The specifications and blueprints sent out were essentially those which Bantam developed in June 1940. Only Bantam and WillysOverland responded initially, though Ford was courted because of its large production capability.
Bantam delivered its prototype on September 23, 1940, Willys on November 13, and Ford on November 23. The three test vehicles each sported a manufacturer inspired nickname. The Bantam's was "Bantam" or "BRC" (for Bantam Reconnaissance Car), the Willys' was "Quad,"and the Ford's was "Pygmy." The rigs were extensively tested, and 1,500 improved models were ordered from each manufacturer for more serious evaluation. These were tested in the field with actual Army units; many were sent overseas under Lend-Lease.
The "BRC" Jeep
The "Quad" Jeep
The "Pygmy" Jeep
Competition over the potentially lucrative Army contract got extremely fierce, and Henry Ford was said to have exerted every means of influence at his disposal in an attempt to get the contract, though the Willys proved to have the most suitable overall design. In July 1941, after a great deal of turmoil with Ford, Bantam and the Army Quartermaster Corps, the contract was finally issued to Willys-Overland for the new vehicle. Officially designated a 1/4ton Command Reconnaissance truck, production began in earnest and Army units began to see them arrive en masse in late 1941 and early '42. According to a number of Army sources, the nickname most GIs chose for the little Willys fourby was "Peep" (the 1/2ton Dodges remained "Jeeps"). When the first units left overseas, these terms of endearment stayed with them for some time, but it wasn't long before a tide of change overwhelmed everything. By this time there was a huge influx of GIs going into service, many of whom had been subjected to a veritable media blitz about the new 1/4ton 4x4, which the press insisted on calling a "Jeep".
According to Irving "Red" Hausmann, chief test driver for Willys, all this came about through his efforts. Hausmann claimed that as early as 1940, he had overheard a few GIs at Camp Holabird referring to the Willys prototype as a Jeep. There were also a large number of other names floating about, including Peep, Bug, Puddle Jumper, Midget, Pygmy, Leapin' Lena and Blitz Buggy. Apparently, Red liked "Jeep" best, and chose to call the Willys by that name whenever asked. It all came to a head in February 1941, in Washington, D.C. Hausmann was doing a publicity drive up the steps of the Capitol Building in an early production Willys. A bystander asked him, "What is that thing?" Hausmann replied, "It's a Jeep." Reporter Katherine Hillyer of the Washington Daily News overheard the remark and reported the incident in a feature story. From that moment on, the name Jeep stuck like glue.
During the war, even the Navy got onto the Jeep act. When they started building small escort aircraft carriers for convoy protection in '42, they were soon nicknamed "Jeep Carriers." Even up to then, the Navy hadn't been completely Jeepless. Starting in early '42, they bought large quantities of MinneapolisMoline NTX aircraft tractors, which were still being called Jeeps by many troops, as was familiar Willys.
The MH - Willys "Jeep" Tank Prototype produced for the Canadian Army
Over the years, much ado has been made over the name Jeep having been derived from its military nomenclature, GP, for General Purpose. This can be disproved easily by noting that until mid1942, the Army designation for the truck was command reconnaissance, not general purpose (that would come later). No doubt the demise of the 1/2ton Dodge Jeep as standard equipment contributed to the use also. When Willys began using the term "Jeep" in advertising, MinneapolisMoline balked. In June 1942, the House Committee on Military Affairs substantiated MM's claim to the name, citing numerous references in newspapers and magazines dating back to before 1940.
In 1943, Bantam joined MM in taking exception to Willys' use of the term. Bantam, having developed the platform from which the other 1/4ton vehicles were based, felt seriouslycompromised by having been left out of the Jeep building business and relegated to making trailers and aircraft landing gear.
In 1944, the Federal Trade Commission chastised Willys over the use of "Jeep"; the turmoil lasted well into the 1950s. But was to no availthe public had spoken. A Jeep was a Jeep and would forever remain a Jeep. While there is no doubt that Willys-Overland was cheeky, perhaps even unethical, in its use of the name, the 640,000 vehicles produced during the war and the many thousands built later certainly earned the right to carry it.
The Jeep CJ (or Civilian Jeep) was a commercial version of the famous Military Jeep from World War II. The first CJ (the CJ-2) was introduced in 1944 by Willys, and the same basic vehicle stayed in production through 7 variants and 3 corporate parents until 1986. In fact, a variant of the CJ is still in production today under license. The last CJs, the CJ-7 and CJ-8, were replaced in 1987 by the reworked Jeep Wrangler. The CJ-7 is very popular in the sport of mud racing, both with the stock body or a fiberglass replica. The CJ-7 could have anything from the stock motor in it all the way up to a 454 cubic inch big block Chevy.
Although it bore the CJ name, the CJ-2 was not really available at retail. Willys produced less than three dozen CJ-2 Agrijeeps in 1944 and 1945. It was very closely-related to the Military Willys MB, using the same Willys Go Devil engine, but there were some changes. It had larger headlights, a side-mounted spare tire and opening tailgate, and an external fuel cap.
Lessons learned with the CJ-2 led to the development of the first full-production CJ, the 1945-1949 CJ-2A. Like the CJ-2 and the Military version, the CJ-2A featured a split windshield. An early column shifter and full floating rear axle gave way to the more familiar floor shift T90 and semi-floating rear axle. In the end, 214,202 CJ-2A's were produced. The CJ-2A was the first civilian Jeep.
The CJ-2A used the "Go Devil" L-Head 134 I4 engine. Early versions of the CJ-2A were produced with a T-90 utilizing a column shifter. The later versions of the CJ-2A were produced with a "three on the floor" shifter rather than the column "three on the tree". The 26 tooth, small hole Dana/Spicer 18 transfer case was used. Front axle used in the CJ-2A was a Dana/Spicer 25 with drum brakes. Some early versions of the CJ-2A used the full-floating Dana/Spicer 23-2 rear end and had shovel and axe grooves on the driver side like the MB. Later the CJ-2A had a semi-floating Dana/Spicer 41 rear end and lacked the shovel and axe grooves on the driver side.
The CJ-3A was introduced in 1949, and replaced the CJ-2A by the next year. It featured a one-piece windshield with a vent in the frame. A bare-bones Farm Jeep version was available starting in 1951 with a power takeoff. 131,843 CJ-3A's were produced before the series ended in 1953.
The CJ-3A used the "Go Devil" L-Head 134 I4 engine. The transmission in the CJ-3A was the T-90 3 speed sending power through a Dana 18 transfer case. The front axle was the Dana 25, and either the Dana 41 or the Dana 44 rear axle.
Only one CJ-4 was produced. It used the new Willys Hurricane engine and had an 81-inch wheelbase. It was a test model, but was sold to a factory employee.
The CJ-3B replaced the CJ-3A in 1953, the same year Willys was sold to Kaiser. It introduced a higher grille and hood to clear the new Willys Hurricane engine. The CJ-3B was produced until 1968 with a total of 155,494 produced, although the design was licensed to a number of international manufacturers, including Mitsubishi of Japan and Mahindra of India. Mitsubishi ceased production of vehicles derived from the CJ-3B design in 1998, but Mahindra continues to produce Jeeps today.
The CJ-3B was available with the "Hurricane" F-Head 134 I4 engine, the T-90 3 speed transmission, the Dana 18 transfer case, either the Dana 25 or the Dana 27 front axle, and the Dana 44 rear axle.
The CJ-5 was influenced by new corporate owner, Kaiser, and the Korean War M-38 Jeep. It was intended to replace the CJ-3B, but that model continued in production. The CJ-5 repeated this pattern, continuing in production for 3 decades while three newer models appeared. 603,303 CJ-5's were produced between 1954 and 1983.
In 1965, Kaiser bought the casting rights to the Buick 225CID V6 Dauntless and the CJ-5 and CJ-6 got a new engine with 155 hp supplementing the Willys Hurricane engine.
The company was sold to American Motors in 1970, and the GM engine was retired after the 1971 model year. (GM's Buick division repurchased the engine tooling in the early 1970s which served as the powerplant in several GM vehicles.) AMC began using their inline 6 engines, the 232 and 258 and offering one V8 engine - 304CID.
To accommodate the new I6 the fenders and hood were stretched 3" starting in 1972. Other minor drive train changes took place then as well.
In 1976 the tub and frame were modified slightly from earlier versions. The windshield frame also changed meaning that tops from 1955-1975 will not fit a 1976-1983 CJ-5 and vice-versa.
In the early 1980s, the CJ used a "Hurricane"-branded version of the GM Iron Duke I4.
Several special CJ-5 models were produced:
Many engine options have been offered for the CJ-5 over it's 29 year production run. The original engine offered in the CJ-5 was the "Hurricane" F-Head 134 I4. The first optional engine offered for the CJ-5 was the Perkins 192 I4 diesel followed by the "Dauntless" Buick 225 V6 in 1965 when Kaiser bought the casting rights to the Buick 225CID V6 Dauntless. That's when the and the CJ-5 and CJ-6 got a new engine with 155 hp supplementing the Willys Hurricane engine. Soon after AMC purchased Jeep from Kaiser, the AMC 232, 258, and 304 became available in the CJ-5. During the last three years of production, the GM 151 I4 was the standard engine.
For many years the T-90 3 speed was used as the standard transmission for the CJ-5. When the CJ-5 began using the Dauntless V6 the T-86 3 speed was used. The T-14 replaced the T-90 and later the stronger T-15 was used behind the 304 V8. The T-98 was an optional 4 speed for the CJ-5 until 1971 when the T-18 became the optional 4 speed. The T-150 became the 3 speed for the CJ-5 in 1976 and in 1980, the heavy duty 3 speeds and 4 speeds were no longer offered, replaced by the lighter duty SR-4, T-4, T-176, and T-5. The CJ-5 never came with an automatic from the factory.
The Dana 18 was used in the CJ-5 from '55 until '71. In 1972 the Dana 20 replaced the Dana 18. From 1980 to 1983 the Dana 300 was used.
From 1954 to 1965 the CJ-5 used the Dana 25, then the Dana 27 replaced the Dana 25 and was used until 1971. From 1972 to 1983, the Dana 30 was used in the CJ-5.
From 1954 to 1970 the Dana 44 with two piece axle shafts were used in the CJ-5 until about mid-1970 at which time a Dana 44 with one piece axle shafts replaced the original 2 piece. Production of the CJ-5 with the one piece axle shafts ran until 1975. From 1976 until the 1983, the AMC 20 was used.
The CJ-6 was simply a 20 inch longer-wheelbase (101 in) CJ-5. Introduced in 1955 as a 1956 model, the CJ-6 was never very popular in the United States. Most CJ6 models were sold to Sweden and South America. The U.S. Forest Service put a number CJ6 Jeeps in to use. Former President Ronald Reagan owned a CJ6 and used it on his California Ranch. American sales ended in 1975. Just 50,172 had been made when the series went out of production completely in 1981. Just as in the CJ-5, new V6 and V8 engine choices appeared in 1965 and 1972.
The original engine offered in the CJ-6 was the "Hurricane" F-Head 134 I4. The first optional engine offered for the CJ-6 was the Perkins 192 I4 diesel followed by the "Dauntless" Buick 225 V6 in 1965 when Kaiser bought the casting rights to the Buick 225CID V6 Dauntless. That's when the CJ-6 got a new engine with 155 hp supplementing the Willys Hurricane engine. Soon after AMC purchased Jeep from Kaiser, the AMC 232, 258, and 304 became available in the CJ-6.
For many years the T-90 3 speed was used as the standard transmission for the CJ-6. When the CJ-6 began using the Dauntless V6 the T-86 3 speed was used. The T-14 replaced the T-90 and later the stronger T-98 was an optional 4 speed for the CJ-6 until 1971 when the T-18 became the optional 4 speed.
The CJ-6 used the Dana 18 from 1958 until 1971. 1972 through 1975 the Dana 20 was used.
Up until 1965, the CJ-6 used the Dana 25 front axle, then the Dana 27 replaced the Dana 25 and was used until 1971. From 1972 to 1975, the Dana 30 was used in the CJ-6.
The Dana 44 with the two-piece shafts was used in the CJ-6 until about mid-1970 at which time a Dana 44 with one piece axle shafts replaced the original 2 piece.
From 1964-1968 Kaiser elevated the Tuxedo Park from just a trim package to a separate model for the CJ-5A and CJ-6A.
A Tuxedo Park Mark IV is signified by a different prefix from a normal CJ-5 with a VIN prefix of 8322, while a normal CJ-5 VIN prefix is 8305 from 1964-1971.
The CJ-7 was produced from 1976 until 1986 and was basically a stretched CJ-5 featuring a wheelbase of 93.4 inches, 10 inches longer than the CJ-5. The extra 10" was added behind the front seats and allowed AMC to offer an automatic transmission for the first time in a CJ. 379,299 CJ-7 Jeeps were produced in the 11 years of production. A CJ-7 tub can be identified by the shape of the door opening, the opening is square where as the CJ-5 has a curving, "S" shaped door opening.
The CJ-7 used a fully boxed frame, which was stronger than frames used in earlier CJs. Stability was also improved with the CJ-7 by widening the frame in the rear and a swaybar as well as a steering stabilizer were added to improve on-road handling. In 1982, The CJ-7 received wider axles, known as Wide-Track axles which further improved stability on and offroad. It should be noted that the Wide-Track axles are for the most part interchangeable with the earlier 1976 thru 1981 CJ narrow-track axles.
During the production of the CJ-7, several different trim package were available including the Laredo and Jamboree packages.
In the first few years of production of the CJ-7, the 232 I6 was the stock engine with the 258 and 304 offered as optional engines. By the late 70s, the 232 was dropped and the 258 became the stock engine. Then in 1980, the GM 151 I4 engine became the CJ-7's stock engine with the 258 and 304 offered as optional choices. After 1981 the 304 was discontinued as an available engine. In 1984, the GM 151 was replaced with the AMC 150 I4.
TransmissionThe T-150 3 speed was the stock transmission From 1976 through 1979 and the T-18 4 speed with granny low was offered as an optional manual transmission. From 1976 through 1979 Jeep also offered the the GM TH400 3 speed automatic as an optional automatic transmission.
1980 marked the end of the Great Transmission Era. From 1980 to the end of production in 1986, the CJ-7s used medium and light duty transmissions compared to the heavier duty transmissions available in the late 70s. Starting in 1981, the heavy duty transmissions were no longer used and the SR-4 and T-176 were used with the I4 and I6 power plants. The T-176 was used with the 304 during 1981. After 1981, the T-4, T-176, and T-5 5 speed were used as the manual transmissions. From 1980 through 1986, the TF999 was used with the I6 and V8 and the TF904 was used with the I4.
Transfer CaseThe Dana 20 was used from '76-'79 and the Dana 300 was used from '80-'86.
Front AxleAll CJ-7s used the Dana 30 front axle. In 1982, the Dana 30 was widened.
Rear AxleThe common axle in the CJ-7 was the AMC 20. Some rare models of the CJ-7 used the Dana 44. In 1982, the Dana rear axles were widened.
Introduced in 1981 and produced through 1986, the CJ-8 Scrambler was a pickup truck version of the CJ-7 and held many of the characteristics of the CJ-5 and CJ-7 of that era. It featured a 103 in wheelbase and a pickup bed. Only 27,792 were built in the 6 years of production.
In 1981, the CJ-8 was offered stock with the GM 151 I4 engine and the 258 I6 and 304 V8 were optional. The last year for the 304 was 1981. The GM 151 was replaced with AMC 150 I4 in 1984 through 1986.
The SR-4 and T-176 were used with the I4 and I6. The T-176 was used with the 304. After 1981, the T-4, T-176, and T-5 5 speed were used. The TF999 was used with the I6 and V8 and the TF904 was used with the I4.
The Dana 300 was the transfer case used in the CJ-8.
The Dana 30 was always used in the CJ-8.
The CJ-8 used the AMC 20 rear axle.
The CJ-10 was a CJ-based pickup truck. Produced from 1981 through 1985, it was sold mainly as an export vehicle, though some were used by the United States Air Force for use as an aircraft pulling vehicle. They featured square headlights like the Jeep Wrangler and an unusual 9-slot grille.
Jeep road car timeline, 1945 to Present - Jeep, A subsidiary of DaimlerChrysler
|CJ-5 - 1955-1983||Wrangler JK|
|CJ-6 - (stretched CJ-5) - 1955-1981|
Wagoneer / Cherokee
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